Shah Rukh & Gauri Khan

Shah Rukh & Gauri Khan

The reigning King & Queen of Bollywood

King Khan wasn’t born a Prince with blue blood in his veins or a silver spoon in his mouth. He was born in a median household in New Delhi to a Muslim emigre from Pehawar who tried his hand at many enterprise ventures together with a small restaurant whereas housing his household in a succession of rented flats. The child was named Shahrukh at delivery, which was later up to date to Shah Rukh when he went into appearing. His father, Hindko talking Meer Taj Mohammed Khan, was a professional Mohandas Gandhi supporter and follower of Khan Abdul Ghaffar Khan of the All Indian Nationwide Congress, in Peshawar. Based on Shah Rukh, his paternal grandfather, Jan Muhammad, was an ethnic Pathan from Afghanistan. Nonetheless, Shah Rukh’s cousins who nonetheless reside within the Shah Wali Qataal space of Qissa Khawani Bazaar in Peshawar declare that the household is of Hindko origin from Azad Kashmir, not Pathan, and in addition contradict the declare that his grandfather was from Afghanistan. So Khan’s tweet claiming his ethnicity is a mixture of “half Hyderabadi (mom), half Pathan (father), some Kashmiri (grandmother)” might very nicely be a partial reinvention of his true ethnicity, maybe to slot in with the standard Bollywood Pathan heirarchy.

After Partition, Meer moved from Peshawar, now in Pakistan, to the Punjabi refugee neighbourhood of Rajendra Nagar, central Delhi, since he was professional-India. There he married a Hyederabadi lady, Lateef Fatima, in 1959. Their first born was a daughter named Shehnaz Lalarukh, who now lives with Shah Rukh completely. Shah Rukh spent his major 5 years in Mangalore, the place his maternal grandfather, Ifthikar Ahmed, served because the chief engineer of the port within the ‘60s whereas it was being constructed. After this, Meer moved his household again to Delhi the place the top of the family tragically succumbed to most cancers in 1981

Shah Rukh attended St. Columba’s College, New Delhi. As a result of he excelled academically in addition to at sports activities equivalent to hockey and soccer, he acquired the varsity’s highest award, the Sword of Honour. Extra importantly for his future profession, he acted in stage performs and was often called a young person for his imitation of Bollywood actors like Dilip Kumar, Amitabh Bachchan and, funnily sufficient, Mumtaz. Amrita Singh, who turned a prime Bollywood actress within the ‘80s, was one the teenage buddies with whom he acted.

One night in 1984, when Shah Rukh was 18, he met 14 12 months outdated Gauri Chibber at a celebration the place the girls and boys stood individually. She was the daughter of Punjabi-Brahmin Hindu Colonel Ramesh Chandra and Sarita Chibber, residents of the South Delhi suburb of Panchsheel Park. She attended first the Loreto Convent after which the Delhi Fashionable College. Boldly, Shah Rukh mustered up his braveness and crossed over to the ladiesfacet and requested Gauri to bop.

Shah Rukh Khan confessed in an interview, “I’m very shy in my private life. I had by no means requested a woman out. I danced together with her, she was excellent. I requested for her phone quantity and she or he was the primary lady with whom I had danced or requested for his or her quantity. I felt that she is the one for me, as she had not mentioned ‘no’ to me up until now.” He promptly requested her for a date the subsequent day to have a soda. She assented and shortly they began relationship recurrently.

Gauri was not totally proud of Shah Rukh’s determination to hitch Bollywod. She even secretly wished his movies would flop so they may return to Delhi the place he might work for her father. “After I went to turn out to be an actor, she didn’t prefer it, as a result of actors have such a repute and likewise ours was an inter-faith marriage,” SRK stated on The Anupam Kher Present

In the meantime, Shah Rukh bought his Bachelor’s diploma in Economics from Hansraj School in 1988, concurrently finding out at Delhi’s Theatre Motion Group (TAG) underneath the mentorship of famend theatre director Barry John. Gauri additionally obtained her Bachelor’s diploma in Historical past from Woman Shri Ram School after which took a six months course in style design and tailoring from the Nationwide Institute of Vogue Expertise to affix her father’s garment enterprise.

Shah Rukh started his skilled appearing profession within the late ‘80s by showing in a number of tv collection, wherein he began making a reputation for himself as critics in contrast his look and performing type with that of Dilip Kumar, the movie thespian. However the place Gauri was involved, Shah Rukh was an insecure and possessive boyfriend who didn’t even like her holding her hair open, not to mention speaking to different boys. He stated in his protection, “I don’t know whether or not I’m a nut however I’m very intense about my love for Gauri. She’s part of me.”

Nonetheless, Gauri acquired fed up with this perspective. Solely her mom knew of her relationship with a Muslim boy, that too a struggling actor, as she was too scared to inform her father. So when she was invited by mates to a visit to Mumbai, she left with out even telling him. Abruptly, Shah Rukh felt deserted by her and realized he didn’t wish to let go. He informed his mom about Gauri and his mom requested him to go and seek for her. Armed with INR 10,000, Shah Rukh drove to Mumbai in his trusty, outdated Fiat in quest of his errant girlfriend with no thought of her actual whereabouts. After a lot looking out, in true filmi style, he headed to the seaside realizing she would positively go to there. There, he spied her and ran in the direction of her. The second the 2 met, they flung themselves upon one another in an embrace and began crying, realising the depth of their love.

Shah Rukh recalled in a TV interview, “I had a Fiat again then and I used to be dropping her dwelling. That’s after I requested her if she’s going to marry me and went off, I didn’t even anticipate her to say ‘sure’ or ‘no.’”

Gauri added, “my dad and mom have been clearly not for it as a result of we have been so younger after which to take a choice to get married to an individual who was going to hitch movies and likewise from a unique faith.”

However her brother supported her resolution after warning Shah Rukh, “Don’t do something hanky panky with my sister!” 1991 turned out to be an eventful 12 months in his life. Shah Rukh’s mom died that 12 months from problems from diabetes. Then, in April, he moved from Delhi to Mumbai and was signed by Hema Malini for the movie Dil Aashana Hai that she produced and directed reverse Divya Bharti, along with signing three extra movies. Alone and again in New Delhi, his sister Shahnaz sank into melancholy. Shah Rukh and Gauri remained in contact, however discovered the lengthy distance relationship arduous. Gauri determined that both they need to get married or break up for good. After a lot cajoling, she lastly satisfied her strict Hindu, vegetarian father to let her marry Muslim boy Shah Rukh and managed to get his blessing. They obtained married on twenty fifth October, 1991 in a Hindu ceremony.

Shah Rukh Khan purchased his mumbai mansion, Mannat, for simply INR 15 crores (US$2.5 million) in 1995. a vacationer landmark, it’s now reportedly value a whopping INR 2000 crores (US $333 million). He was additionally gifted some of the costly properties in Dubai, a villa on Palm Jumeirah, price US$sixty five million. As well as, He additionally owns a palatial bungalow in Delhi and a GB£20 million flat close to the Dorchester on Park lane, mayfair, London. The second richest film star on the earth, SRK is pricelook forward to it…$600 million

Shah Rukh reminisced on fellow actor Anupam Kher’s TV chat present, “I began capturing in June and in October we acquired married. Our honeymoon was on the units of Dil Aashana Hai.” The younger couple arrange dwelling in a small, rented condo in Mumbai.
Shah Rukh’s debut movie turned out to be Deewana, releasing in June 1992, during which he was a supporting actor. The movie’s leads had been Rishi Kapoor and Divya Bharti. It turned the second highest grossing movie of the 12 months, launching his movie profession. He was awarded the Filmfare Finest Male Debut Award for his efficiency. The identical yr, he additionally starred in Chamatkar and the comedy Raju Ban Gaya Gentleman reverse Juhi Chawla, successful pairing. The roles he performed have been related in that they have been filled with vitality and enthusiasm. Movie critic Arnab Ray of Day by day Information and Evaluation wrote that Shah Rukh introduced a brand new type of appearing “sliding down stairs on a slab of ice, cartwheeling, somersaulting, lips trembling, eyes trembling, bringing to the display screen the form of bodily vitality … visceral, intense, maniacal one second and cloyingly boyish the following.”

The subsequent yr, he performed villainous anti-hero roles within the hits, Darr, wherein he performs an obsessive lover, and Baazigar, through which he performs a assassin. In Yash Chopra’s Darr, which was the primary of his many collaborations with the filmmaker and his firm Yash Raj Movies, Shah Rukh’s stammering portrayal and the usage of the phrase “I like you, Okayokokay-Kiran” turned memorable and well-liked with audiences. He acquired a nomination for the Filmfare Award for Finest Efficiency in a Destructive Function, also referred to as the Finest Villain Award, for this function. In Baazigar, Shah Rukh performs an ambiguous avenger who murders his girlfriend, stunning Indian audiences and turning the usual Bollywood movie system on its head. In The Cambridge Companion to Fashionable Indian Tradition, Sonal Khullar known as the character “the consummate anti-hero.” Solid for the primary time reverse newcomer Kajol, he gained his first Filmfare Award for Greatest Actor. The Shah Rukh-Kajol pairing has been so profitable over time, that twenty years plus later, they’re nonetheless taking part in the leads in movies collectively. They’ve starred in 9 movies collectively to this point.

Together with his star within the rise, in 1995 Shah Rukh starred in a complete of seven movies, the primary of which was Rakesh Roshan’s melodramatic thriller Karan Arjun. Co-starring Salman Khan and Kajol, it turned the second-highest-grossing movie of the 12 months in India.

The best grossing movie of the 12 months and probably the most profitable Indian movies of all time is the romcom, Dilwale Dulhania Le Jayenge (1995) reverse Kajol. Written and directed by Aditya Chopra, Yash’s son and later husband of actress Rani Mukherjee, the movie’s plot revolves round two younger non-resident Indians (NRIs), who fall in love throughout a trip by Europe with their associates. Although Shah Rukh was initially hesitant to painting the function of a lover, the viewers beloved him on this movie as a “romantic hero” a lot that it grew to become the longest-operating movie within the historical past of Indian cinema. It gained a document of 10 Filmfare Awards, probably the most for a single movie at the moment, together with the second of Shah Rukh’s Finest Actor Awards, in addition to profitable the Nationwide Movie Award for Greatest Fashionable Movie Offering Healthful Leisure. Its soundtrack additionally grew to become probably the most common albums of the ‘90s. Movie critic Raja Sen mentioned, “Khan offers a wonderful efficiency, redefining the lover for the Nineteen Nineties with nice panache. He’s cool and flippant, however honest sufficient to attraction to the [audience]. The efficiency itself is, like the very best within the enterprise, performed properly sufficient to return throughout as easy, as non-performing.”

After Gauri’s transient foray into present enterprise along with her internet hosting gig on weekly Hindi music countdown present, Oye, for MTV India behind her and with Shah Rukh’s star standing safe, the couple determined it was lastly time for them to start out a household and in 1997 their son Aryan was born.

Aryan, now 19, is a mini-me of his well-known father. He graduated from the distinguished Sevenoaks College, Kent, half an hour from London. In his personal proper, he has gained the Maharashtra Taekwondo competitors in 2010 and was introduced with the black belt, the best achievement stage within the martial arts. He’s additionally a budding actor. Whereas Shah Rukh received for finest dubbing voice male animation, for Hum Lajawab Hai, the dubbed Hindi model of the Oscar profitable cartoon function film The Incredibles, Aryan gained the award for finest dubbing youngster voice artist male for it within the kids’s class. He’s additionally rumored to have dated Amitabh Bachchan’s granddaughter Navya Naveli Nanda. Aryan is at present enrolled within the College of Southern California the place he’s finding out filmmaking. His godfather is fittingly Karan Johar.

Shah Rukh’s subsequent massive blockbuster was the track and dance car Dil To Pagal Hai (1997) with Madhuri Dixit and Karisma Kapoor, the very best grossing Indian movie of the 12 months worldwide, adopted subsequent 12 months by Karan Johar’s directorial debut Kuch Kuch Hota Hai (1998) Shah Rukh’s fourth movie reverse Kajol and a coming of age romcom drama. The third highest-grossing Indian movie of the yr, it’s the primary Bollywood movie to enter the UK cinema prime ten.

In 2000, the couple had their daughter Suhana. Now sixteen and enrolled at Dirubhai Ambani Worldwide Faculty, she is a pint sized fashionista, standing at 5’2”, a footballer, taking part in soccer tournaments for her college, and even captaining the U-14 workforce. She loves dancing, and carried out within the Pop video of Shiamak Dawar’s Summer time Funk present. She additionally enjoys writing, successful an award at Katha nationwide story writing competitors. Shah Rukh has proudly said in lots of interviews that Suhana is desperately ready to complete her research and be part of movies. She too has her father’s seems, particularly his distinctive nostril. Shah Rukh plans to ship her to the U.S. for faculty to check appearing.

Subsequent Shah Rukh starred reverse Amitabh Bachchan in Aditya Chopra’s Mohabbatein (2000), and Karan Johar’s household drama Kabhi Khushi Kabhie Gham (2001), which SRK cites as a turning level in his profession, as he held his personal in opposition to the veteran actor who stars in each movies. Amitabh’s function in each is that of an authoritarian determine, the film exhibits ideological struggles between the 2 males. Shah Rukh was awarded his second Filmfare Critics Award for Greatest Actor for Mohabbatein, whereas Kabhi Khushi Kabhie Gham, additionally starring Kajol remained the highest-grossing Indian manufacturing of all time within the abroad marketplace for the subsequent 5 years.

2001 introduced a reversal of fortune for SRK. Shah Rukh’s manufacturing firm Dreamz Limitless produced Santosh Sivan’s historic epic Asoka, a partly fictionalised account of the lifetime of emperor Ashoka, starring Shah Rukh within the titular position. The movie was screened on the Venice Movie Competition and the 2001 Toronto Worldwide Movie Competition, however regardless of opening with a lot fanfare, it carried out poorly on the field workplace. So heavy was the loss incurred that Shah Rukh was compelled to shut Then in December, Shah Rukh suffered a spinal damage whereas performing an motion sequence for a particular look in Krishna Vamsi’s Shakti: The Energy. He was identified with a prolapsed disc, which brought on him extreme ache throughout capturing. His situation worsened to the purpose that he lastly needed to bear the difficult anterior cervical discectomy and fusion surgical procedure at Wellington Hospital, London in 2003. After this, Shah Rukh has lowered his workload and restricted the variety of movie roles he accepts per yr.

Sanjay Leela Bhansali’s remake of interval romantic tragedy Devdas (2002), the most costly Bollywood movie ever made on the time, starred Shah Rukh within the title function of a rebellious and love lorne alcoholic reverse Ashwariya Rai and Madhuri Dixit. The movie turned an immediate basic and earned quite a few awards together with 10 Filmfare Awards, with Finest Actor for Shah Rukh and even a BAFTA Award for Greatest Movie Not within the English Language.

 “That she is fashionable, enigmatic, and poised is understood, however on the shoot we noticed one other aspect of her. Even within the frames she shares with Shah Rukh, she holds her personal impressively” wrote Priya Tanna, editor of Vogue India

Karan Johar’s Kal Ho Naa Ho (2003), a comedy-drama set in New York Metropolis, starring Shah Rukh, Jaya Bachchan, Saif Ali Khan, and Preity Zinta, turned the second-highest-grossing movie domestically and the highest-grossing Bollywood movie in exterior markets that yr. His tear jerker portrayal of a person with a deadly coronary heart illness gained over the sentimental viewers and critics alike. Within the 2003 version of the Encyclopedia of Hindi Cinema, it was written that Shah Rukh “defied the picture of the standard hero in each these movies and created his personal model of the revisionist hero.”

Then, battle broke out between Shah Rukh, Juhi Chawla and Aziz Mirza, all companions in Dreamz Limitless over the failure to solid Juhi of their 2003 manufacturing of Chalte Chalte as an alternative of the a lot youthful Rani Mukherjee, they usually parted methods, regardless of the movie’s success. Dreamz Limitless was disbanded and gave start to Crimson Chillies Leisure with Gauri rising as producer (uptill now the manufacturing home has launched 9 movies). Within the firm’s first manufacturing, he starred in choreographer Farah Khan’s directorial debut, the motion comedy masala movie Foremost Hoon Na reverse Sushmita Sen, a fictionalised account of India–Pakistan relations. The movie is the story of Indian military Main who turns into embroiled within the occasions to make sure thatMission Milap,” the releasing of civilian captives on both aspect of the border of India and Pakistan, can happen as an indication of belief and peace between the 2 nations. Maybe due to his familial hyperlinks with Pakistan, the movie consciously strikes away from the stereotypical portrayal of Pakistan as a villainous nation and reveals the Indo-Pakistani battle from a impartial standpoint. In Yash Chopra’s romance, Veer-Zaara, Shah Rukh performs an Indian Air Pressure pilot who falls in love with a Pakistani girl, performed by Preity Zinta. The movie, screened on the fifty fifth Berlin Movie Pageant to essential reward, was the best incomes movie of 2004 in India, whereas Primary Hoon Na was the second-highest earner. So Shah Rukh was ruling the field workplace with each the very best and second highest grosser. Is it any shock then that he grew to become the reigning King of Bollywood?

Shah Rukh’s third collaboration with Karan Johar was the romantic drama Kabhi Alvida Naa Kehna (2006), the story of two unhappily married individuals in New York Metropolis who start an extramarital affair. The movie, that includes an ensemble forged of Amitabh Bachchan, Preity Zinta, Abhishek Bachchan, Rani Mukherji and Kirron Kher, was India’s highest-grossing movie within the abroad market. His function on this in addition to in Don, a remake, earned him Greatest Actor nominations on the Filmfare Awards, although critics negatively in contrast his portrayal to that of Amitabh Bachchan within the unique movie.

Shah Rukh Khan purchased his mumbai mansion, Mannat, for simply INR 15 crores (US$2.5 million) in 1995. a vacationer landmark, it’s now reportedly price a whopping INR 2000 crores (US $333 million). He was additionally gifted one of the vital costly properties in Dubai, a villa on Palm Jumeirah, value US$sixty five million. As well as, He additionally owns a palatial bungalow in Delhi and a GB£20 million flat close to the Dorchester on Park lane, mayfair, London. The second richest film star on this planet, SRK is valuelook ahead to it…$600 million

In 2007, Shah Rukh revisited his hockey expertise for his portrayal of a disgraced hockey participant who coaches the Indian girls’s nationwide hockey crew to World Cup success in Yash Raj Movies’ semi-fictional Chak De! India. Critic Bhaichand Patel acknowledged that Shah Rukh primarily portrayed himself as a “cosmopolitan, liberal, Indian Muslim.” For this, he received one other Filmfare Award for Finest Actor. Rajeev Masand of CNN-IBN critiqued that his efficiency was “with none of his typical trappings, with none of his trademark quirks,” portraying the character “like an actual flesh-and-blood human being.” Filmfare journal included his efficiency of their 2010 challenge of the Prime eighty Iconic Performances.
Shah Rukh starred alongside Arjun Rampal and Deepika Padukone, in her debut function, in Farah Khan’s reincarnation melodrama Om Shanti Om, through which he performs ‘70s junior artiste who’s reborn as a 2000s period celebrity. The movie grew to become the very best grossing Indian movement image of 2007. Khalid Mohammed, movie critic for Hindustan Occasions wrote, “the enterprise belongs to Shah Rukh Khan, who tackles comedy, excessive drama and motion together with his signature model—spontaneous and intuitively clever.”

Receiving his honorary diploma from College of Edinburgh, Scotland

In 2008, Shah Rukh purchased possession rights for the Kolkata Knight Riders workforce within the Twenty20 cricket match Indian Premier League (IPL) in partnership with Juhi Chawla and her husband Jay Mehta for USD seventy five million. The staff’s efficiency improved over time, and so they lastly grew to become the champions in 2012 and 2014. To boost the crew’s model, Shah Rukh himself carried out on the opening ceremony of the 2011 season, dancing to Tamil songs. In 2013, he entertained the group alongside Katrina Kaif, Deepika Padukone and Pitbull on the cricket staduim.

Gauri additionally remained within the highlight by showing in a TV business for the house furnishings model D’decor together with Shah Rukh in 2013. The subsequent yr, the couple walked the ramp collectively for Karan Johar’s debut trend sown on the HDIL India Couture Week 2009.

My Title Is Khan (2010), Shah Rukh’s fourth profitable collaboration with Karan Johar and his sixth with Kajol, is a real story concerning the prejudice in opposition to Islam within the U.S. after the eleven September assaults. His character is a Muslim affected by delicate Asperger syndrome that units out on a journey throughout America to satisfy the nation’s president. Shah Rukh spent a number of months researching his function by studying books, watching movies and speaking to individuals affected by the situation. My Title is Khan turned one of many highest grossing Bollywood movies of all time exterior India and earned Khan his eighth Filmfare Award for Finest Actor, equaling Dilip Kumar’s report of most wins within the class. Jay Wiesenberger wrote in Selection how Khan portrayed the Asperger’s sufferer with “averted eyes, springy steps, [and] stuttered repetitions of memorized texts”, believing it to have been a “standout efficiency certain to obtain the Autism Society’s gold seal of approval.”

Moreover, over time, Shah Rukh has systematically performed roles that “current NRI id in world Bollywood,” incomes him a billion followers the world over. ”

Shah Rukh and Gauri’s lavish neo classical Bandra bungalow, Mannat has been completed up by Gauri in a myriad of types. Whereas the formal entertaining space of drawing and eating rooms are Louis XIV impressed with a lot use of gilt and heavy, ornate curtains, the lounge has uncovered brickwork displaying Artwork. You may inform that for higher or for worse no expense has been spared and the home is supposed to impress the viewer. Within the dwelling, notably the Quran may be seen mendacity subsequent to the statues of the Hindu deities.

Emboldened by her questionable success in doing up her personal splendid house, in 2010 Gauri partnered with Hrithik Roshan’s ex-spouse Susanne Khan to design unique inside tasks. Their first undertaking was a 60,000 sq. foot mansion Vadodara. In 2012, they launched a line of furnishings at Susanne’s residence retailer in Mumbai – The Charcoal Undertaking. In an interview with Vogue India, she stated that she selected inside design due to her curiosity in artwork, “I began off as an artist in class with varied sketches. I continued that as a pastime for a few years, and I feel that’s the place my designs come from.”

Shah Rukh’s third baby AbRam was born in 2013 through surrogacy, since Gauri was nicely over forty by this time. The start mom is just not recognized and, to quell public curiosity, Shah Rukh is most protecting of this little one who was born untimely and spent quite a lot of time within the hospital after start. All three children have been introduced up training each their mother or father’s religions.

After this, SRK starred within the hits Chennai Specific (2013) Completely happy New 12 months (2014), his personal manufacturing Dilwale (2015) but once more reverse Kajol, and Fan (2016) wherein his grand mansion Mannat seems. Raees (2017) is that this 12 months’s upcoming launch reverse the charming Mahira Khan. He has appeared in additional than eighty Bollywood movies to this point, and gained 14 Filmfare Awards. When it comes to viewers dimension and earnings, he has been described as one of the crucial profitable movie stars on the planet. For his contributions to movie, the Authorities of India honored him with the Padma Shri, and the Authorities of France awarded him each the Ordre des Arts et des Letters and the Légion d’honneur. He additionally has numerous endorsement offers, incomes him the nickname, Model SRK. His philanthropic efforts embrace well being care and catastrophe aid, and he was honoured with UNESCO’s Pyramide con Marni award in 2011 for his assist of kids’s training. In 2015, he acquired an honorary diploma from the College of Edinburgh, Scotland.

Shah Rukh is without doubt one of the wealthiest celebrities in India, topping the Forbes India’s Celeb one hundred Listing in 2012, 2013 and 2015, his wealth being estimated at US$600 million. He owns a number of properties in India and overseas, together with a GB£20 million house in central London, and a villa on the Palm, Jumeirah in Dubai. He was named by Newsweek as considered one of their fifty strongest individuals globally in 2008. His wax statue is at six of the Madame Tussaud’s museums world wide.

Talking of his success, Shah Rukh mentioned in an interview, “Such nice issues have occurred to such a traditional man like me. I’m a no person who shouldn’t have been in a position to do all this however I’ve carried out it. I inform everybody that there’s this fantasy I work for; there’s this fable referred to as Shahrukh Khan and I’m his worker. I’ve to dwell as much as that … I’ll do it, I’m an actor. However I can’t begin believing on this fantasy.”

We now have recognized one another for thus lengthy, we’ve surpassed a stage,” he mentioned concerning his relationship with Gauri on Koffee with Karan. “One of many levels that we have now handed is that we don’t want to sit down below a moonlit evening. I believe simply passing one another throughout from the bed room to the lounge is romantic. Love is within the air. We’ve great kids who’re a proof that we now have a wild, loud, screaming romance happening in the home all day lengthy.”

They certain appear to be a rock stable couple at the least outwardly regardless of their starry life with its myriad of hazards and pitfalls.


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